GlossaryGlossary

C

Call Tag


The UPS return notification and mailing label used to retrieve an Short Term Loan kit and ship it back to PaTTAN.



Captioned Media


includes filmstrips, films, videos, etc..that have the spoken word or the visual intent of the media represented by written language displayed on the screen as it is occurring.



Career Assessment


A process, beginning as early as elementary school and continuing through adulthood, that assists a student in developing educational plans to acquire skills related to employment.



CART (Communication Access Real-time Translation)


the simultaneous verbatim translation of the spoken word into English text using a stenotype machine, notebook computer and real time software, which displays the text on a laptop computer, monitor or screen. CART service is often provided in classroom settings for a student who is deaf or hard of hearing.



Central Auditory Processing


Central auditory processing involves the analysis of sound, which occurs in the brain (i.e., beyond the inner ear). Children with central auditory processing problems typically have normal hearing.



Cerebellum


The bottom of the brain. This is the area involved in muscle coordination, motor learning, balance, and fine motor movements of the body.



Cerebral Palsy


A disability resulting from damage to the brain before, during, or shortly after birth and outwardly manifested by muscular incoordination and speech disturbances.



Classroom Plus


ClassroomPlus is an additional tutoring option for parents of K-9 students who are below proficient in reading and math. Parents are provided with a certificate of up to $500 to cover tutoring services. Children in kindergarten through ninth grade are eligible to participate in the program if they score at the basic level or below-basic level on the PSSA or in the bottom half of state-approved tests.



Clinical Low Vision Assessment


Evaluation to determine whether a student with low vision can benefit from optical devices, nonoptical devices, or adaptive techniques to enhance visual function.



Closed Circuit Television (CCTV)


An optical device that consists of a camera, lenses, and a monitor, which electronically enlarges print, pictures, and objects.



Club Foot


A malformation of the foot; in most cases the cause is unknown.



Cochlear implant


An electronic device that is implanted into the inner ear to provide electrical stimulation to the cochlea to enable perception of sounds.



Cochlear Implant Monitoring


is follow-up on a continual basis to insure that the cochlear implant is performing correctly and that the child is receiving the intended benefit.



Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)


CALP is the language ability required for academic achievement in a context-reduced environment. Examples of context-reduced environmentsᅠinclude classroom lectures and textbook reading assignments. CALP is distinguished from Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS).



Cognitive Impairment


Difficulty with one or more of the basic functions of the brain, including perception, memory, thinking, attention, and reasoning skills.



Coma


This is a deep, sustained unconsciousness that results from the brain damage. The eyes remain closed and the patient cannot be aroused.



Communication Board


A picture or alphabet display; a visual representation that may include photographs or symbols.



Communication Mode


is HOW a person expresses and receives communication. Examples include speaking, signing, gesturing, writing, etc. The method of communication being employed in the environment of the deaf or hard of hearing child.



Community Agency


A service provider offering programs such as vocational rehabilitation, mental health, mental retardation, and housing to community residents.



Community-based Instruction


Regularly scheduled educational experiences conducted outside the school setting.



Community of Practice


Students, families, school-age services and program providers, post-school services and program providers, and local community members who share an interest and passion about secondary transition, and who deepen their understanding and knowledge of post secondary outcomes by interacting on an ongoing basis.



Community-referenced Instruction


Information and training conducted within the classroom that is related to situations, issues, and settings outside the school building.



Community Residential Rehabilitation (CRR) Group Home


This is a residential mental health service that must be prescribed by a doctor. Children may or may not be in the custody of the Office of Children and Youth or Juvenile Probation Office. This service is funded through insurance based on Medical Necessity Criteria (MNC) and requires that an individual is Medical Assistance eligible. It provides mental health support in a group home environment, with professionally trained staff available 24 hours per day, seven days a week. Accessibility to this program is extremely limited.



Community Residential Rehabilitation (CRR) Host Home


This is a residential mental health service (also known as Therapeutic Foster/Family Care) that provides mental health support in a family environment and must be prescribed by a doctor. Children may or may not be in the custody of the Office of Children and Youth or Juvenile Probation Office. This service is funded through insurance based on Medical Necessity Criteria (MNC) and requires that an individual is Medical Assistance eligible.



Competent Authority


Student eligibility for specialized formats of copyrighted materials must be documented by a competent authority, which legislation defines as follows: In cases of blindness, visual disability, or physical limitations competent authority is defined to include doctors of medicine, doctors of osteopathy, ophthalmologists, optometrists, registered nurses, therapists, professional staff of hospitals, institutions, and public or welfare agencies (e.g., social workers, case workers, counselors, rehabilitation teachers, and superintendents). In the case of reading disability from organic dysfunction, competent authority is defined as doctors of medicine who may consult with colleagues in associated disciplines.



Compliance Monitoring for Continuous Improvement (CMCI)


The Bureau of Special Education’s monitoring system of school districts and charter schools. It is based on Federal requirements to ensure quality educational programs for students with disabilities.



Comprehension


The process of constructing meaning from written text. It includes such skills as: activating prior knowledge, literal understanding of what is read, sequencing, summarizing, making inferences, predicting, and making connections between new and unknown information.



Computer Access


This means the ability to operate a computer by using a standard keyboard or an adapted input method.



Concussion (mild TBI)


An injury that commonly results from a blow to the head or from sudden deceleration. It usually causes an altered mental state, either temporary or prolonged. Often used by the public to refer to a brief loss of consciousness.



Congenital Dislocation of the Hip


Generally includes subluxation of the femoral head, and complete dislocation of the femoral head from the true acetabulum. This condition occurs in approximately one in 1,000 live births and is more common in females than in males.



Consequence


Any event that follows a behavior (e.g., student gets out of doing work or student must complete work during recess).



Contracted Braille


Braille consists of a standard alphabet and hundreds of abbreviations and contractions. Using such symbols creates contracted Braille, saving approximately 20% of the space of non-contracted Braille. This term is replacing the old terms Grade 2 or Grade II Braille.



Contractures


Permanent shortening (as of muscle, tendon, or scar tissue) producing deformity or distortion.



Copyright Act as Amended (Chafee Amendment)


The Chafee Amendment to the Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. Section 121, is a special exemption in copyright law that allows an authorized entity to reproduce or distribute copyrighted materials in specialized formats for blind or other persons with disabilities without the need to obtain permission of the copyright owner.



Core Instructional Materials


Core instructional materials are print textbooks and related print core materials published with the texts that are written and published primarily for use in elementary and secondary school instruction and required by the LEA for use by students in the classroom.



Core Program


The primary instructional tool that teachers use to teach students to read or become proficient in math and to ensure that students reach levels that meet or exceed grade level standards. It should address the instructional needs of the majority of students in the school or district. ᅠ Reviews of research are available at http://reading.uoregon.edu/curricula/index.php and http://www.fcrr.org/FCRRReports/CReports.aspx?rep=core. ᅠ Core programs are the initial tool to guide high quality instruction in the classroom.



Cortical Visual Impairment (CVI)


The brain’s inability to process the visual formation sent to it from the eyes through the visual pathways.



Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)


CEC is the largest international professional organization dedicated to improving educational outcomes for students with disabilities. CEC advocates for appropriate governmental policies, sets professional standards, and provides professional development.



Counseling Services


Services provided by qualified social workers, psychologists, guidance counselors, or other qualified personnel. See Psychological Counseling as a Related Service.



Courses of Study


A list of the courses and other educational activities that the student will be involved in prior to graduation which support his desired post-school outcomes.



C-Print


printed text of spoken English displayed in real time similar to open captioning. It is an effective means of acquiring information for some individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. C-Print provides a text of spoken information that is meaning – for – meaning rather than a verbatim translation.



Criterion-Referenced


There are four levels of achievement recognized by the Department of Education. They are Advanced, Proficient, Basic, and Below basic. ADVANCED – The Advanced Level reflects superior academic performance. Advanced work indicates an in-depth understanding and exemplary display of the skills included in the Pennsylvania Academic Content Standards. PROFICIENT – The Proficient Level reflects satisfactory academic performance. Proficient work indicates a solid understanding and adequate display of the skills included in the Pennsylvania Academic Content Standards. BASIC – The Basic Level reflects marginal academic performance. Basic work indicates a partial understanding and limited display of the skills included in the Pennsylvania Academic Content Standards. This work is approaching satisfactory performance. There is a need for additional instructional opportunities and/or increased student academic commitment to achieve the Proficient Level. BELOW BASIC – The Below Basic Level reflects inadequate academic performance. Below Basic work indicates little understanding and minimal display of the skills included in the Pennsylvania Academic Content Standards. There is a major need for additional instructional opportunities and/or increased student academic commitment to achieve the Proficient Level.



Cued Speech (Language)


A speech reading and speech production system that uses eight hand shapes in four locations near the face to represent phonemes (sounds) that are not visible on the mouth and phonemes that look like one another on the mouth. Combinations of hand shapes and locations are synchronized with natural speech movements to make spoken language visible and understandable.



Cued Speech (Language) transliteration


the process of a third party (transliterator) facilitating communication between persons who are hearing and persons who are deaf or hard of hearing by providing a transliteration of the communication by working between spoken English and Cued Speech.